History of Selected U.S. Army Spruce Squadrons in the First World War

Spruce Soldiers at Agate Beach, Oregon, c. 1918

The U. S. Army Order of Battle provides some information on the history of the Spruce units during the First World War. Many of the units were created at Vancouver Barracks. Once established, some of the squadrons went out into the forest to work on logging and construction. Others stayed at Vancouver and worked on the cut-up plant where the spruce lumber was converted to airplane wing struts.

This web page includes official Army information, but is enhanced by information in the fine book Soldiers in the Woods by Rod Crossley. This exhaustive history of the Spruce Production Division includes some of the individual unit histories, including the companies to which they were assigned, and some of camps in which they were located. Note that Army units and sub-units were often transferred as the logging and construction work was finished, or new projects started. This practice of moving men around regularly makes it difficult to pinpoint the location of any one Spruce Squadron.

Note that this page has a Table of Contents which points to the listed Spruce units. Note that many units were originally numbered as "Provisional" or "Aero" squadrons, before July 1918. The Table of Contents reflects those number changes. If you do not see a particular unit, contact me, and I will try to help with your research.

Note that while I have a few rosters of soldiers in the Spruce units, for the most part I cannot connect a particular soldier with a particular unit. Feel free to view the rosters that I do have on that web page. On the main Spruce Squadron web page, I have provided links that point to the offerings of some of the local historical societies in the Pacific Northwest.

I've tried to list some of the Spruce units, when they were formed, and their official designations. For the time being, not all units are listed here. I will add units as I research the information from the Army material, and Rod Crossley's book. If you are researching a particular soldier, be sure to get their First World War Army personnel records (not every record exists, as some were destroyed many years ago in a fire). There is a listing of all aero units on Wikipedia, which includes Spruce Squadrons.

Note that I have some photographs of Spruce Squadrons from the First World War, a few of which are linked from this page.

5th Spruce

This unit was originally the 411th Aero (Construction). It was formed in Nov 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 5th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, as part of the permanent, armed, military presence, and did not take part in logging-related tasks. The unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks in February 1919.

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6th Spruce

This unit was originally the 412th Aero (Construction). It was formed in Nov 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 6th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, as part of the permanent, armed, military presence, and did not take part in logging-related tasks. The unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks in February 1919.

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16th Spruce

This unit was originally the 402nd Aero (Construction). It was formed in Nov 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 16th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, working at the airplane wood plant, called the "cut-up plant". This unit was demobilized in February 1919.

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17th Spruce

This unit was originally the 403rd Aero (Construction). It was formed in Nov 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 17th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, working at the airplane wood plant, called the "cut-up plant". This unit was demobilized in January 1919.

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19th Spruce

This unit was originally the 405th Aero (Construction). It was formed in Nov 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 19th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for most of the war period, not only working at the airplane wood plant, called the "cut-up plant", but also involved in the construction of the plant itself.

Along with the 137th Spruce Squadron, this unit was involved with the Monarch Mills operation in North Portland. Due to the requirement for men to operate that newly-opened mill just across the Columbia River, members of this unit were assigned to that mill. They commuted daily to work on construction and operations at that facility. According to Crossley, there were as many as 254 men of various units, working at the mill at the time of the Armistice.

This unit was demobilized in January 1919.

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21st Spruce

This unit was originally the 1st Provisional Squadron. It was formed in March 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 21st Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, working at the airplane wood plant, called the "cut-up plant". This unit was demobilized in January 1919 at Vancouver Barracks.

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23rd Spruce

This unit was originally the 3rd Provisional Squadron. It was formed in March 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 23rd Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, working at the airplane wood plant, called the "cut-up plant". This unit was mustered out of the Army at Vancouver Barracks in January 1919.

Soldiers of a Spruce Squadron

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27th Spruce

This unit was originally the 31st Provisional Squadron. It was formed in June 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 27th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period. The unit was mustered out of the Army at Vancouver Barracks in February 1919.

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28th Spruce

This unit was originally the 32nd Provisional Squadron. It was formed in June 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. It was redesignated as the 28th Spruce in July 1918. This unit served at Vancouver Barracks for the war period, as the Regimental Supply Squadron. This unit was mustered out of the Army at Vancouver Barracks in January 1919.

Photo of 28th Spruce Squadron (Image hosted at Washington State University).

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33rd Spruce

This unit was originally the 416th Aero (Construction). It was formed Dec 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. In Dec 1917, the unit was moved to Fort Lawton, Wash. In Jan 1918, they moved to to Stillwater, Wash., and worked for the Cherry Valley Logging Co. Additional troops were added, and worked at other locations for other logging companies, so eventually there were 8 separate, geographically scattered, groups associated with this Squadron.

In July 1918, the unit was redesignated the 33rd Spruce. In Sep 1918 they moved to Everett, Wash. In Nov 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and in Jan 1919, were demobilized there.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 11 officers and 206 enlisted men.

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34th Spruce

This unit was originally the 417th Aero (Construction). It was formed Dec 1917, at Vancouver Barracks. In Dec 1917, the unit was moved to Pysht, Wash. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated the 34th Spruce. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and in Jan 1919, were demobilized there.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 161 enlisted men.

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43rd Spruce

This unit was originally the 419th Aero (Construction), formed in March 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they moved to Lindberg, Washington, West Fork Logging Co. They remained at this location throughout the war period. Note that the town of Lindberg was destroyed in a forest fire in the summer of 1918.

In July 1918, the unit was renamed as the 43rd Spruce. In Dec 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and in Jan 1919, were demobilized.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 75 enlisted men.

The Washington State Historical Society has a roster of this squadron at: Roster of 43rd Spruce Squadron.

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44th Spruce

This unit was originally the 420th Aero (Construction), formed in Jan 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they moved to Hoquiam, Wash. (Note that nearby Aberdeen is home to the excellent Aberdeen Historical Museum.) Crossley notes that this unit was located at Humptulips, Washington, Polson Logging Co., Camp 7.

In July 1918, they were renamed as the 44th Spruce. In Dec 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and in Jan 1919, were demobilized.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 7 officers and 194 enlisted men.

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45th Spruce

The predecessor of the 45th Spruce was the 421st Aero Squadron, a construction unit, formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In January 1918, the unit was transferred to Carlisle, Washington, Copalis Lumber Co. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated the 45th Spruce, while still being in place in Carlisle. In November 1918, they were returned to Vancouver Barracks. The unit was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 11 officers and 217 enlisted men.

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46th Spruce

This unit was originally the 423rd Aero (Construction), formed in Jan 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to Bay City, Washington, Climax Logging Co.

In July 1918, they were redesignated as the 46th Spruce. In Nov 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks. In Jan 1919, the unit was demobilized.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 51 enlisted men.

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47th Spruce

This unit was originally the 427th Aero (Construction), formed in Jan 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to Raymond, Washington, Willapa Bay Lumber Co. mill. Over time, the unit increased in size, and sub-units were located in at least 7 different areas near Raymond, working for different lumber companies. Some of the locations had poor mail service, and were extremely difficult to access, as there were no roads into these areas.

At various times, sub-units of this Squadron were broken off and made part of other Squadrons.

In July 1918, the unit was redesignated as the 47th Spruce. In Nov 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks. In Jan 1919, the unit was demobilized.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 12 officers and 337 enlisted men. These numbers are from the end of the War, and reflect the growth of the Squadron.

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48th Spruce

This unit was originally the 431st Aero (Construction), formed in Jan 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to Aberdeen, Washington. According to Crossley, this unit was located in Alma, Washington, Saginaw Timber Co.

In February 1918, the unit was broken up in the field, and the men assigned to other spruce units there. The 431st was then reconstituted at Vancouver Barracks, with new personnel, as a Transportation Unit. According to the Army material, in February 1918, the newly organized 48th Spruce was moved to Saginaw, Washington.

In July 1918, they were redesignated as the 48th Spruce. In Nov 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks. In Jan 1919, the unit was demobilized.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 7 officers and 170 enlisted men. Since these figures were published after the War, I assume that they reflect the size of the reconstituted 48th Spruce unit.

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50th Spruce

The 50th Spruce was originally the 435th (I) (Construction) squadron. It was formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, the central Army location for spruce activities. In March 1918, this unit was moved to a camp near Hoquiam, Washington, Airplane Spruce and Lumber Co., Deep Creek Camp A1. (These camps were quite isolated from nearby towns like Hoquiam.)

Regarding Hoquiam, this town is located near Aberdeen, home to the excellent Aberdeen Historical Museum. The museum has some excellent material on the history of the Spruce Squadrons).

In July 1918, the 435th, along with many others was re-designated, in this case as the 50th Spruce. The unit was demobilized January 1919, along with many other Spruce squadrons.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I have from the Spruce book, the 50th had a complement of 6 officers and 238 enlisted men.

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52nd Spruce

The 52nd Spruce Squadron was originally the 438th Aero Squadron. They were a construction squadron, originally formed at Vancouver Barracks in January 1918, and sent to Raymond, Washington, during that month, Siler Logging Co. They remained at Raymond for the duration of the war, returning to Vancouver Barracks in November 1918, where they remained until the unit was demobilized in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 8 officers and 235 enlisted men.

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53rd Spruce

This unit was originally the 446th Aero (Construction), formed in February 1918, at Vancouver Barracks. In April 1918, they moved to Enumclaw, Washington, Warren Spruce, Camp 6A. They remained at this location throughout the war period.

In July 1918, the unit was renamed as the 53rd Spruce. In January 1919, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were demobilized there.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 8 officers and 216 enlisted men.

The Washington State Historical Society has a booklet with the history of this squadron at: History Booklet of the 53rd Spruce Squadron.

Spruce Soldier Morris Pittard in Vancouver (446th Aero)
Photo of Morris Pittard, Member of the 446th Aero Squadron

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59th Spruce

The 59th Spruce, was originally called the 7th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in March 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to Raymond, Washington, Warren Spruce, Camp 1C.

While at Raymond, the unit was redesignated as the 59th Spruce in July 1918, and were moved to Camp 1H nearby.

In November 1918 the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and was mustered out there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts on my website indicate that this unit had 6 officers and 183 enlisted men.

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60th Spruce

The 60th Spruce, was originally called the 9th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in March 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to a camp near Hoquiam, Washington, more specifically, Airplane Spruce and Lumber, Humptulips Camp C2. (Note that nearby Aberdeen is home to the excellent Aberdeen Historical Museum.)

While at Hoquiam, the unit was redesignated as the 60th Spruce in July 1918.

In November 1918 the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and was mustered out there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 183 enlisted men.

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61st Spruce

The 61st Spruce, was originally called the 15th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in April 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they were transferred to Nemah, Washington, Grant Smith-Porter. This unit was constructing a railroad designed to access the spruce stands near Nemah.

While at Nemah, the unit was redesignated as the 61st Spruce in July 1918.

In September 1918, they were transferred to South Bend, Washington (erroneously listed by the Army as being in Oregon). In November 1918 the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, and was mustered out there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 150 enlisted men.

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64th Spruce

The 64th Spruce Squadron was originally the 44th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to Aberdeen, Washington, Aberdeen Lumber and Shingle Co. (mill)

Note that Aberdeen is home to the excellent Aberdeen Historical Museum. The museum has some excellent material on the history of the Spruce Squadrons.

During the same month of July 1918, the unit was redesignated as the 64th Spruce. In November 1918, the unit returned to Vancouver Barracks, where it was demobilized in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts on my website indicate that this unit had 9 officers and 229 enlisted men.

64th Spruce Squadron, Detachment #1, Aberdeen, Washington

Aberdeen Washington Return Address

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67th Spruce

The 67th Spruce, was originally called the 428th Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to Seaside, Oregon, Hammond Lumber Co. During the time this unit was here, several smaller sub-groups of this Squadron were sent to work at other mills and operations in this area.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 67th Spruce. According to Crossley, in late September 1918, this unit was broken up into two Spruce Squadrons, primarily for administrative reasons. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 6 officers and 268 enlisted men.

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68th Spruce

The 68th Spruce, was originally called the 433rd Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In February 1918, they were transferred to Olney, Oregon, Western Cooperage Company. This camp was located south of Astoria. The soldiers were involved in riving operations at various camps.

At one time, members of this unit were transferred to a mill operation in another part of Oregon. It was common for units to be broken up, and soldiers re-assigned to other Spruce operations.

An interesting bit of history occurred at their camp near Olney. A fast-moving forest fire destroyed their camp in September, 1918. No one was hurt, but the soldiers were obliged to move to the headquarters of Western Cooperage. Only the company documents were saved from the fire.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 68th Spruce. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.



The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 108 enlisted men.

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69th Spruce

The 69th Spruce, was originally called the 434th Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In February 1918, they were transferred to Clatsop, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 1A (warehouse). Various sub-groups from within this Squadron were sent to other Grant, Smith-Porter operations in the area.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 69th Spruce. In November 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

Spruce Squadron (probably 69th)

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 164 enlisted men.

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70th Spruce

The 70th Spruce, was originally called the 447th Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in February 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In February 1918, they were transferred to Tillamook, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 3A. This camp was located along the Miami River, so the Army gives the location as Miami, Oregon. This unit became quite large, as more and more men were put to work on various projects. The primary work was to "rive" (split) spruce trees up, and truck out the pieces to the mills for processing. In some cases, they had to build plank roads for the trucks. Apparently, the quality of the terrain did not allow any other kind of work, so this logging took place throughout the war.

In October 1918, men of this unit helped to work a nearby forest fire.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 70th Spruce. Crossley notes that, as part of the constant change in the construction situation, this unit had over 400 men by August, 1918, so was split up into several other Spruce squadrons.

As an example of the growing size and management difficulties, men from this unit worked at the Brighton Mill in Brighton, Oregon. Others were at Coates Driving and Boom Co., while still others worked at the Wheeler Lumber co, Wheeler, Oregon. To add to the complexity, Crossley notes that other men from this squadron worked at the Silver Spruce Lumber Co., Bay City, Oregon, as well as the Cummings-Moberly Lumber Company Mill, Garibaldi, Oregon.

In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 78 enlisted men. Those official records probably apply to the manpower at the end of the War. As noted above, this unit became quite large (over 400 men) and was split up in August 1918, with the soldiers being reassigned to other spruce units.

447 Aero Squadron Vancouver Barracks 1918

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71st Spruce

The 71st Spruce, was originally called the 452nd Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in February 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In February 1918, they were transferred to Seaside, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 2A. Various sub-groups from within this Squadron were sent to other Grant, Smith-Porter operations in the area.

As an aside, note that this camp was located over 8 miles from the nearest communication, with the only mail being once daily by stage. This situation shows how isolated these Spruce operations were.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 71st Spruce. Crossley notes that, as part of the constant change in the construction situation, this unit had 200 men removed in August 1918, who were reassigned to the 77th Spruce (Camp 1E) for logging (riving) operations for Warren & Scott. Some soldiers also built pole roads, and worked at the Schmidt Lumber Company sawmill. More troops were removed in September to help make up the 148th Spruce (Camp 1G).

In November 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in December 1918.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 150 enlisted men. Those official records probably apply to the manpower at the end of the War. As noted above, this unit was often broken up and the men reassigned to other spruce units.

Yard-Wide Photo of 452nd Aero Squadron, Spruce Soldiers

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74th Spruce

The 74th Spruce, was originally called the 458th Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in February 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In March 1918, they were transferred to Clatsop, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 1C.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 74th Spruce. In November 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 195 enlisted men.

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75th Spruce

The 75th Spruce, was originally called the 8th Provisional Squadron . This group was formed in March 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they were transferred to Seaside, Oregon. Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 2B. From this camp, they performed riving of fallen spruce logs. This process was done almost entirely by hand, with the logs being hauled out of remote areas.

In May 1918, this unit was transferred to Clatsop, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 1D. Work in this area included riving, log hauling, building of temporary haul roads, and working on new railroads. Many of the units in the Clatsop area, working for the Grant, Smith-Porter Company were performing similar work. In many cases the camps were located in isolated areas, with difficult access. See the information describing the 71st Spruce Squadron. Other units in the area included the 69th Spruce, the 74th Spruce, the 77th Spruce, and the 78th Spruce.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 75th Spruce. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 171 enlisted men.

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77th Spruce

The 77th Spruce, was originally called the 13th Provisional Squadron. was formed in April 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they were transferred to Clatsop, Oregon, Grant, Smith-Porter, Camp 1E.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 77th Spruce. According to Crossley, in late September 1918, this Squadron was broken into two new units, primarily for administrative reasons. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 346 enlisted men.

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78th Spruce

The 78th Spruce was originally the 14th Provisional formed in April 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, Washington. Most of the spruce outfits were formed at this main facility. In the same month, they were sent to Astoria, Oregon.

That is the Army information, but Crossley's book mentions that this unit was sent to Clatsop, Oregon. They worked with Grant, Smith-Porter logging company, and were initially housed in Camp 1D. They were moved around quite a bit and often loaned to other units. They worked primarily on railroad construction (narrow gauge), operation of the same railroad, and logging of the spruce (called "riving").

In November 1918, they were sent back to Vancouver Barracks. In January 1919, they were disbanded and mustered out of the Army.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 94 enlisted men. These numbers reflect the final head count for this unit at the end of the War.

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79th Spruce

The 79th Spruce, was originally called the 437th Aero Squadron (construction). This group was formed in January 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to camps near Hoquiam, Washington, Grant Smith-Porter, and later Polson Camp 10. Personnel of this unit were shuffled around in this railroad construction area, from camp to camp. Also, some members of this Squadron became part of other Spruce units. The railroad was being built to access the spruce stands nearby. (Note that nearby Aberdeen is home to the excellent Aberdeen Historical Museum.)

In March 1918, they were back in Vancouver Barracks, for a reorganization of Squadrons. This reorganized unit was then transferred to Astoria, Oregon. In May 1918, they were moved to Waldport, Oregon, to take part in more railroad construction. By this time, the personnel in this Squadron had become quite experienced with the challenges of cutting a railroad through the virgin forests of Oregon.

While they were stationed in Waldport, in July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 79th Spruce. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to South Beach, Oregon. The unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 151 enlisted men.

Picture of the 79th Spruce Squadron

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80th Spruce

The 80th Spruce was originally the 453rd Aero Squadron (construction). It was formed at Vancouver Barracks in February 1918. In April 1918, the unit was moved to Toledo, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co. In late June, many of the men became part of the construction units building a new sawmill at Toledo. This mill was going to be entirely government-built, and would supplement the specialty work being done by the cut-up plant near headquarters at Vancouver Barracks. However, a number of the personnel continued to be involved back in the forest, building spruce camps, and cutting the spruce timber, near Siletz, Oregon. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated the 80th Spruce. In January 1919, they were transferred back to Vancouver Barracks and demobilized February 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit was comprised of 5 officers and 284 enlisted men.

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84th Spruce

The 84th Spruce was originally the 20th Provisional Squadron. That unit was formed in April 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to Waldport, Oregon, Warren Spruce, Camp 2B. At several locations nearby, the unit helped grade new railways, moved construction materiel and equipment, and operated heavy trucks to help bring in the huge spruce logs. In July 1918, they were redesignated as the 84th Spruce Squadron. They stayed in Waldport until January 1919, when they returned to, and were demobilized at, Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 129 enlisted men.

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86th Spruce

The 86th Spruce was originally the 22nd Provisional Squadron. That unit was formed in May 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce, Camp 5C. The unit took part in railroad construction in this area. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated as the 86th Spruce Squadron.

In September 1918, some of the troops from this unit were moved to Yaquina for more railroad construction work. It should be understood that many of the Spruce Squadrons were broken up and assigned to different parts of the contractor projects, as needs required. The Squadron remained the in South Beach area until January 1919, when they returned to, and were demobilized at, Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 175 enlisted men.

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87th Spruce

The 87th Spruce was originally the 24th Provisional Squadron. That unit was formed in June 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were moved to South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce, Camp 5D. The unit took part in railroad construction in this area. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated as the 87th Spruce Squadron.

In September 1918, they were transferred to Siemscary, Washington, Siems, Carey-H.S. Kerbaugh Co. Siemscary, (a post office specially opened for this activity), along with the town of Joyce, Washington, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County.

In December 1918, this unit returned to Vancouver Barracks. They were demobilized there in January 1919.

The Washington Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 148 enlisted men. These unit counts are appropriate for their operations in late 1918, in Washington state. The Army information does not give the unit counts, while they were stationed in Oregon.

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88th Spruce

The 88th Spruce was originally the 25th Provisional Squadron, established in June 1918, Vancouver Barracks (the main facility for the operations). The same month, they were moved to South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce, Camp 5D. During their time in this area, parts of the Squadron were located in various construction camps associated with railroad construction. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated as a Spruce Squadron, in this case, the 88th Spruce. In October 1918, this unit was moved to Waldport, Oregon. In December 1918, they were returned to Vancouver Barracks for demobilization.

In January 1919, the unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 2 officers and 145 enlisted men.

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89th Spruce

The 89th Spruce was originally the 26th Provisional Squadron. It was formed in June 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, the center of the spruce activity. Most units were formed up here. In the same month, June 1918, the 26th was moved to Waldport, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co., Camp 2G. The unit took part in railroad construction, including building dams to control and divert local creeks. In July 1918, it was redesignated as a Spruce Squadron, in this case, the 89th Spruce.

The photo that accompanies this article was generously shared by a member of a soldier's family.

In January 1919, the unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 174 enlisted men.

89th Spruce  Squadron

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90th Spruce

The 90th Spruce was originally the 27th Provisional Squadron. It was formed in June 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, the center of the spruce activity. Most units were formed up here. In the same month, June 1918, the 27th was moved to Newport, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co., Camp 7E (among others). The unit took part in railroad construction on the Yaquina Northern line. In July 1918, it was redesignated as a Spruce Squadron, in this case, the 90th Spruce.

In December 1918, the unit was returned to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 159 enlisted men.

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91st Spruce

The 91st Spruce was originally the 28th Provisional Squadron. It was formed in June 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, the center of the spruce activity. Most units were formed up here. In the same month, June 1918, the 28th was moved to Yaquina, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co. The unit took part in railroad construction on the Yaquina Northern line. In July 1918, it was redesignated as a Spruce Squadron, in this case, the 91st Spruce.

In November 1918, the unit was transferred to Newport, Oregon. The unit was demobilized at Vancouver Barracks, January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 159 enlisted men.

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92nd Spruce

The 92nd Spruce, was originally called the 29th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in June 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to Agate Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co., Camp 7P. The unit helped in the construction of a railroad in the Yaquina Northern area (along the coast north of Agate Beach). This railroad would be used to transport the spruce logs out of the forest. It should be noted that a great deal of the railroad construction work was performed with picks and shovels using soldier labor.

During July 1918, the unit was re-designated the 92nd Spruce. In November 1918, they were transferred to Newport, Oregon. By this time, the spruce operations were being closed down. In December 1918, the unit was transferred to Vancouver Barracks, and was demobilized there in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 148 enlisted men.

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93rd Spruce

The 93rd Spruce, was originally called the 30th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to Newport, Oregon, and redesignated as the 93rd Spruce. Crossley indicates that they were in South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co. The unit helped in the construction of a railroad in the Yaquina Northern area (along the coast north of Agate Beach). This railroad would be used to transport the spruce logs out of the forest. It should be noted that a great deal of the railroad construction work was performed with picks and shovels using soldier labor.

In November 1918, they were transferred to Yaquina, Oregon. In January 1919, they were demobilized at Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 166 enlisted men.

Very fortunately, I was able to purchase a set of letters and photographs by the Spruce Soldier, Tabor Trevillian. The following images link to some of the photos, while the link above shows a spreadsheet of the letters that I have from him.

Tabor Trevillian -- Spruce Soldier, 1918

93rd Spruce Squadron, Camp 7.D, Newport, Oregon

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94th Spruce

The 94th Spruce, was originally called the 33rd Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were transferred to South Beach, Oregon, and redesignated as the 94th Spruce. Crossley indicates that they were in South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co. The unit helped in the construction of a railroad in the Yaquina Northern area (along the coast north of Agate Beach). This railroad would be used to transport the spruce logs out of the forest. It should be noted that a great deal of the railroad construction work was performed with picks and shovels using soldier labor.

In August, 1918, they were transferred to Toledo, Oregon, just up the river from Newport, to help build a completely new sawmill for airplane spruce lumber. The Army determined that the existing commercial saw mills could not cut lumber to airplane specifications, and as the main cut-up plant in Vancouver, Washington, was fully utilized, the decision was made to create a from-scratch mill in Toledo for these purposes. The mill was not completed by the time of the Armistice.

In January 1919, they were demobilized at Vancouver Barracks.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 139 enlisted men.

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95th Spruce

The 95th Spruce, was originally called the 34th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, the unit was transferred to Waldport, Oregon. Crossley indicates that this unit was in South Beach, Oregon, Warren Spruce Co., Camps 2C and 2E. The unit helped in the construction of a railroad in the Yaquina Northern area (along the coast north of Agate Beach). This railroad would be used to transport the spruce logs out of the forest. It should be noted that a great deal of the railroad construction work was performed with picks and shovels using soldier labor.

In July 1918, this unit was redesignated as the 95th Spruce. In August 1918, the unit was transferred to Newport, Oregon. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 142 enlisted men.

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102nd Spruce

The 102nd Spruce, was originally called the 414th Aero Squadron (construction) This group was formed December 1917 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, the unit was transferred to Powers, Oregon, Smith-Powers Logging Co. Initially, this Squadron operated in both logging and railroad construction camps. In February 1918, men from this Squadron were assigned to the North Bend Mill and Lumber Co., North Bend, Oregon, for lumber mill work. Other small groups within this Squadron worked at other mills and camps. In July 1918, this unit was redesignated as the 102rd Spruce. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 10 officers and 245 enlisted men.

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103rd Spruce

The 103rd Spruce, was originally called the 35th Provisional Squadron. This group was formed July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, the unit was transferred to Coquille, Oregon, Sitka Spruce Co. The Squadron performed mill work here, and in other nearby locations. One example is a small group assigned to Moore's Sawmill in Bandon, Oregon. This group was housed in the Vale Hotel.

Some of the men of this Squadron also worked in the forests to log the spruce. In July 1918, the unit was redesignated as the 103rd Spruce. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 6 officers and 122 enlisted men.

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117th Spruce

The 117th Spruce was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were sent to Joyce, Washington, Siems, Carey-H.S. Kerbaugh Co. The town of Joyce, as well as a post office specially opened at Siemscary, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County.

In August 1918, this unit was transferred to Lake Crescent, Washington, the intended terminus of the logging railroad. (Today, Lake Crescent is within the boundaries of Olympic National Park.) In October 1918, the unit was moved back to Joyce, Washington. In December 1918, the unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks and were demobilized there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 141 enlisted men.

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118th Spruce

The 118th Spruce was formed in July 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were sent to Joyce, Washington, Siems, Carey-H.S. Kerbaugh Co. The town of Joyce, as well as a post office specially opened at Siemscary, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County.

In August 1918, this unit was transferred to Lake Crescent, Washington, the intended terminus of the logging railroad. (Today, Lake Crescent is within the boundaries of Olympic National Park.) In October 1918, the unit was moved back to Joyce, Washington. In December 1918, the unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks and were demobilized there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 147 enlisted men.

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119th Spruce

The 119th Spruce was formed in August 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were sent to Joyce, Washington. Joyce, as well as a post office specially opened at Siemscary, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County.

This Squadron formed a Military Police Detachment, the only unit of its type in the Spruce Production Division. This Police group was formed when it became necessary to control the soldiers enjoying their time off in the town of Port Angeles, Washington.

In August 1918, this Squadron was assigned to the lumber mill owned by the Puget Sound Mills and Timber Co., Port Angeles, Washington. In December 1918, the unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks and were demobilized there in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 5 officers and 222 enlisted men.

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128th Spruce

The 128th Spruce was formed in August 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were sent to Joyce, Washington. Joyce, as well as a post office specially opened at Siemscary, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County.

In December 1918, the unit was moved to Siemscarey, Washington. The unit was demobilized in January 1919 at Vancouver Barracks.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 150 enlisted men.

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130th Spruce

The 130th Spruce was formed in August 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month they were sent to Seattle, Washington, to work at the Schwager Nettleton Mill Company. According to Crossley, their barracks were the New Richmond Hotel. Due to the distance to the mill, the men were transported to work by truck.

In December 1918, the unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks, where they were demobilized in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 2 officers and 64 enlisted men.

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135th Spruce

According to Crossley, in late September 1918, this unit was broken up into two Spruce Squadrons, primarily for administrative reasons. According to the Army material, the 135th Spruce was formed September 1918, at Garibaldi, Oregon. Again, according to Crossley, the Squadron took over units operating at Brighton, Wheeler, Garibaldi, and Bay City, Oregon. It appears that, due to the unit split-up, various detachments were involved in lumber activities, including a large group working at a lumber mill of the Cumming-Moberly Mill Co. In addition, some of the troops from this Squadron were working at the Wheeler Lumber Co. at Cochran.

The unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks in December 1918, and mustered out at that location in January 1919.

The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 4 officers and 63 enlisted men.

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137th Spruce

The 137th Spruce was formed in Port Orchard, Washington in August 1918. They were assigned to Belfair, Washington, but when the intended logging facility was found to be unsanitary by the Army inspectors, the unit became available for re-assignment. Due to the requirement for men to operate a newly-opened mill in North Portland, Oregon, this unit was reformed in September 1918 at Vancouver Barracks, and commuted daily to work on construction at the Monarch Mills, North Portland. Note that this mill was located across the river from Vancouver Barracks. According to Crossley, there were as many as 254 men of various units, including the 19th Spruce Squadron, working at the mill at the time of the Armistice.

The Army material indicates that the Squadron was officially moved to North Portland, Oregon in October 1918. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

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141st Spruce

The 141st Spruce was formed in October 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they were transferred to Port Gamble and Port Ludlow, Washington, Puget Mills Co. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

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144th Spruce

The 144th Spruce was formed in September 1918 at Vancouver Barracks. In the same month, they were transferred to Joyce, Washington, Siems, Carey-H.S. Kerbaugh Co. The town of Joyce, as well as a post office specially opened at Siemscary, were the main centers of operation of a major railroad construction project to reach the huge stands of spruce near the area currently bounded by Olympic National Park. This project involved over 3,000 soldiers located at many camps within Clallam County. In December 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

The Washington spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 135 enlisted men.

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146th Spruce

The 146th Spruce was formed in Astoria, Oregon, in September 1918. This unit was formed from troops split from previously-operating squadrons. They were assigned to the Oregon-Pacific Mill & Lumber Company, as well as the Astoria Box Company. Both of these companies ran large lumber mills. In November 1918, they returned to Vancouver Barracks, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919.

The Oregon spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 3 officers and 113 enlisted men.

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149th Spruce

The 149th Spruce was formed September 1918 at Garibaldi, Oregon. In same month, as part of the split-up of the 135th Spruce, they moved to Wheeler, Oregon, Wheeler Lumber Co. In November 1918, the unit was moved to Vancouver Barracks for demobilization, and were mustered out of the Army in January 1919. The Oregon Spruce unit charts that I show on my website indicate that this unit had 6 officers and 229 enlisted men.

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Spruce Squadron Table of Contents

5th -- 6th -- 16th -- 17th -- 19th -- 21st -- 23rd -- 27th -- 28th -- 33rd -- 34th -- 43rd -- 44th -- 45th -- 46th -- 47th -- 48th -- 50th -- 52nd -- 53rd -- 59th -- 60th -- 61st -- 64th -- 67th -- 68th -- 69th -- 70th -- 71st -- 74th -- 75th -- 77th -- 78th -- 79th -- 80th -- 84th -- 86th -- 87th -- 88th -- 89th -- 90th -- 91st -- 92nd -- 93rd -- 94th -- 95th -- 102nd -- 103rd -- 117th -- 118th -- 119th -- 128th -- 130th -- 135th -- 137th -- 141st -- 144th -- 146th -- 149th

Provisional Unit Table of Contents

1st Provisional -- 3rd Provisional -- 7th Provisional -- 8th Provisional -- 9th Provisional -- 13th Provisional -- 14th Provisional -- 15th Provisional -- 20th Provisional -- 22nd Provisional -- 24th Provisional -- 25th Provisional -- 26th Provisional -- 27th Provisional -- 28th Provisional -- 29th Provisional -- 30th Provisional -- 31st Provisional -- 32nd Provisional -- 33rd Provisional -- 34th Provisional -- 35th Provisional -- 44th Provisional --

Aero Unit Table of Contents

402nd Aero -- 403rd Aero -- 405th Aero -- 411th Aero -- 412th Aero -- 414th Aero -- 416th Aero -- 417th Aero -- 419th Aero -- 420th Aero -- 421st Aero -- 423rd Aero -- 427th Aero -- 428th Aero -- 431st Aero -- 433rd Aero -- 434th Aero -- 437th Aero -- 438th Aero -- 446th Aero -- 447th Aero -- 452nd Aero -- 453rd Aero -- 458th Aero --



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